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Multilingual students in higher education outperform other students Jessner, and third language learning enhances and reinforces previous languages learned as long as those languages are supported Cenoz, ; Riemersma, The purpose of this dissertation synopsis is to highlight the current education literature and the data outcomes of the perspectives of researchers involved in sociolinguistic, psycholinguistic, neurolinguistic, and interdisciplinary investigations that led to tools for increasing student performance and a new model of education incorporating the possibility of multiple language learning.

Recommendations for better support of the languages of minorities while increasing communicative abilities of all students could guarantee a brighter future for individuals, communities, and the global society. Chapter 5: A Contextual Applied Research Analysis of Negative Public Perceptions Human service and non-profit organizations play a pivotal role in community aid and development.

This role has become more critical in times of economic hardship, when the community is in need of support and assistance. The paper explores and develops methods to counteract this organizational stereotype, which is critical because public perception and credibility can influence whether people in the community use the services of these organizations.

The goal of this analysis is to provide solutions that can positively influence practices in human service organizations in urban settings. Cheryl Lentz. The discussion concentrates on how, throughout the past two decades, the rise of the adult learning model has removed educational access barriers and enabled more individuals from diverse backgrounds—including women, minorities, full-time employees, and students returning to complete unfinished degrees.

This multi-faceted transformation has provided myriad opportunities for those balancing the demands of family, work and community to experience intellectual growth and program achievement. Subsequently, certain variables have led to a cultural shift from a literature and conceptually centric focus to one in which students are becoming consumer learners. An understanding of learners consuming knowledge and the product of education symbolizes the diverse vantage points of the adult education community and the process of seeking, evaluating, applying, and challenging knowledge.

Three unique perspectives from which to consider the complex requirements of learners, the institutional demands for efficiency and cost-recovery, and the practice obligations of professional educators, are offered. Care has been taken to explore the environment in which the authors find themselves as a result of both their teaching and student experiences. The intention has been to do conduct this examination with balance and fairness, rather than prejudice or from the sensibilities of only one of the three partners involved in the institution-student-educator partnership.

The goal was to examine seven leadership attributes in supervisors of employee-students seeking post-secondary educations while employed, and determine the predictive value of these leadership attributes with regard to intention to turnover. The leadership attributes examined were a authenticity and trustworthiness; b change agent; c charisma; d communication; e learner; f mentor; and g visionary. In addition to the seven qualities, a logistic regression analysis tested a general lack of leadership and four factors created through a factor analysis.

While individual leadership qualities are not predictors of employee intention to turnover, the broad concept of leadership is a statistically significant predictor of employee intention to turnover. Within the four factors, the factor of Learner was also a statistically significant predictor of employee intention to turnover. Employee-students are more likely to leave a leader lacking leadership qualities and are more likely to remain with a leader supportive of education and personal growth and development. Chapter 8: Assessing for Meaning Outside the Classroom Exploring what students learn in college has sparked a revolution in practice within post-secondary education and research that has been fueled by both demands for external accountability and the internal desire to improve the student experience.

However, even after several decades of intense scrutiny, clearly discerning the student learning experience remains an enigma for both scholars and practitioners. The elusiveness encompassing student learning in post-secondary environments is partially due to the vast number of variables and combinations of variables that influence student learning, both in aggregate, and at the individual student level. Colleges and universities have engaged in both assessment and research exploring what students are learning. This chapter will explore how students make meaning of their intentional out-of-class learning experiences by briefly reviewing prominent literature related to the topic, overview a recent study by Levett , and concluding with suggestions for practitioners in post-secondary educational environments.

Listed Authors Dr. Elena Murphy. Judy Fisher-Blando. Denise L. Rene Contreras. Emad Rahim. Darrell Norman Burrell. Gillian Silver. Richard Wolodkowicz. Kerry Lynn Levett. Tom Woodruff. Search for:. Publishing is an expensive venture, time consuming, and most times heartbreaking just trying to get through the door. Who has an easy time with rejection of what may be potentially life changing theories? Cheryl is a very brilliant woman, teacher, coach, friend, and a leader. I was attracted to her because of her unselfishness, and a willing heart to not only share the knowledge she has with those around her, but also to empower them to look beyond themselves.

Cheryl, I thank you for everything, your wisdom, coaching, and for giving me a wing to fly on. You are an amazing strong woman and a great friend that shares all she has! For much of his career, he studied the mechanisms underlying cancer and aging. In , Ozer came to NJMS where he served as professor and chair in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics; senior associate dean for oncology programs; and the first director of the cancer center. He was a mentor to many at NJMS. A memorial service was held at the medical school on October The goal is to raise more than half a million dollars from at least 1, donors in a hour period, from midnight to P.

EST on December 1. However, there are patients whose relationship with food is more complicated. Levounis says the addiction medicine angle offers a helpful perspective to both patient and therapist. Impulsivity and compulsivity are often at the root of both substance use disorders and the behavioral addictions, making the underlying machinery similar.

However, there are obvious differences. As an integral member of the Institute for Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases i3D , she heads-up a lab studying fungal infections, lectures on immunity and the host defense to NJMS and GSBS students, serves on thesis defense committees, publishes research papers, and continues to write new grant proposals to support her investigations.

The biology major, who thought she was headed to a career in medicine, was one of just five students hand-picked to participate in the first Minority Access to Research Careers program at the University of Puerto Rico in Mayaguez, which provided her with financial support for all four college years, 6. After rotating through three labs as part of her first year in graduate school, Rivera joined the research team of Yakov Ron, PhD, a professor of pharmacology, to study autoimmunity in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

She had planned to return to Puerto Rico after earning her doctoral degree to become a professor at a small undergraduate college and do some research on the side. However, during graduate school she met her husband and also fell in love with New Jersey. In , Rivera moved on to the lab of Eric Pamer, PhD, chief of infectious diseases at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, and her life as a professional researcher was off and running.

She had discovered a driving interest in what has become the abiding theme of her work: achieving a better understanding of how the immune system recognizes and fights infection with the ultimate goal of assisting the body in that battle. Rivera landed in the right place at the right time. Pamer wanted to launch a new project and proposed that Rivera head it up. She willingly accepted the challenge. Not only did Rivera accept the project, but she succeeded in effecting a major coup—she created a new mouse model with fungus-specific T cells.

While this may sound ho-hum to the uninitiated, a new animal model to better study a specific disease is a major achievement in the science world, often moving research forward far more quickly. This was a neglected area of study.

And clearly, the relationship is on a positive trajectory. What does she see as she looks into her future? They are particularly abundant indoors. As Rivera and the three GSBS students in her lab tackle these big questions, she is preparing an NIH program project grant proposal P01 with Gause and others in the infection and inflammation group. She is working on a new mouse model to help answer these new questions. In the meantime, the mouse model she developed to study fungal infection continues to serve as a useful research tool, recently traveling abroad to a lab in Japan and also stateside to another in Wisconsin.

Rivera ponders whether houses flooded by Hurricane Sandy may be incubators for disease-causing organisms and what potentially could be done to prevent this from happening in the future. Hailing from an island that is no stranger to damaging storms, she hopes that her long years of research may soon yield answers that will impact the wellbeing of flood-ravaged communities from New Jersey to Puerto Rico and beyond. But for those with mechanical aptitude, persistence, and a pioneering spirit, the doors are wide open.

So what inspired Folorunsho Edobor-Osula, MD, MPH, to happily and without reservation first jump into orthopedics and then specialize further in the pediatric side of things? There were a lot of reasons. You have to think stronger, not be stronger. Osula is African-American and black women represent less than 1 percent of orthopedic surgeons nationally.

So she knows that tough-mindedness is absolutely necessary to break new ground. Osula grew up in Queens, NY, the oldest of four children. She has one sister and two brothers. Her father was a high school chemistry teacher for 30 years before retiring and her mother was a day care center inspector. But she will also tell you that role models are critical when choosing a profession and she had a great one.

When is the right time to get pregnant during medical training? If they have knee pain and then the knee pain goes away after surgery, they just move on. I want to give back. Patients have financial issues, trust issues, and educational issues, she states, and access to medical care is a constant challenge. How do you keep a medical appointment if you have no transportation? Her young patients come from Newark—and also from many other places, sometimes quite distant. Some have been treated elsewhere and either the treatment was not successful or there.

She and her partner, Sanjeev Saberwahl, MD, are among the few pediatric orthopedic surgeons in the area who accept Medicaid. Clubfoot is a condition she treats often. It should begin when the infant is as young as three days old, which is when the bones are most malleable, according to Osula. But there are challenges. Treatment must continue for years. In other cases, children are not brought in for medical treatment until they are several months old. The delay can cause significant complications.

Both jobs come with challenges that are not always recognized or appreciated. Time for a Change How do you teach a future doctor about doctoring? With such an enormous volume of information to learn and retain, how can students also learn to respond to the demands of an evolving health care system? All signs pointed to go. It seemed like precisely the right time to launch a major revision to the NJMS curriculum. But time is in short supply among medical school administrators and faculty. The added duties of the process would likely prove daunting; and pulling together a cohesive team would require masterful leadership.

Who could take this on and succeed? They, in turn, engaged a broad cross-section of students, faculty, and staff, and also brought together multiple committees of health care providers from dentistry, nursing, public health, the health-related professions, and research from many institutions, including the affiliated hospitals where the students do their clinical training. First-year medical students plant flowers to help beautify Newark during their first week of school. Soto-Greene obviously chose her leaders with great forethought.

When it comes to super-charged energy for their work, these two take the prize. But coming from her, they sound fresh and genuine. The ultimate goal, Lamba explains more simply, was to align the curriculum with the needs of the current health care system, where doctors practice in teams that include nonphysician members. They designed the course together. Therefore, a major emphasis of the new curriculum includes threads of these core topics, woven both horizontally and vertically, through all four years of medical school.

This will allow early career exploration opportunities for. With the new curriculum, students will get there by learning clinical skills earlier;. But student-success also means learning the prescribed information. According to Hill, this will supplement the work being done by the Center for Academic Success and Enrichment, and ensure that all students achieve their academic potential. Students spent part of their very first week in the clinical skills center, where they practiced patient care activities, mastered life-saving skills, and earned Basic Life Support certification.

And what will Lamba do now that the new curriculum is up and running? Go back to school, of course. She discusses the value of a. I love trying to understand how things work and am fascinated by biology. I worked with my parents on mechanical things as part of family businesses while growing up.

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I was raised to not be afraid to break things down and figure out how to fix them. I was told it was not a realistic choice of career for me, one because I was a girl, but two, because I was too short. I am only five feet tall, but am still puzzled by that supposed limitation. Around that time, I got interested in medicine, nature, and biology. I was the first person in my family to have the opportunity to go to University. My first day at UBC was like a dream, and I discovered quickly that I wanted to spend the rest of my life at a university.

I am an eternal student. How did you get your start in the research world? What in your personal history has led you to where you are in your professional life? This position is a dream-come-true for me. I love working with people, networking, and bringing people together. As the dean, one of my goals will be to build partnerships and bridges for faculty and students. While I have a passion for science, I am an eclectic person.

SHRP is an amazingly diverse school with 42 programs spanning many different fields. This position affords me the opportunity to work with people from many different backgrounds, helping them to succeed. My family moved a lot while I was growing up and I attended different schools every three years in Canada, Ireland, and the U. So I am comfortable with change and enjoy the challenges of navigating new situations. This is a time of great change for our school, which provides immense opportunity but also requires adaptation to a new environment.

I hope to help the school navigate through that change. In the summer of my third year in college, I started working in a Drosophila genetics lab and discovered that I love doing research. I was fortunate to be mentored by several outstanding scientists at UBC. I learned a lot about research, but also about the politics of science, how you get grants, and the administrative workings of a university.

My kids were 2, 3, and 13 when I started and 6, 7, and 17 when I finished. I wanted them to have a role model, and I wanted to have a family life as well as pursue my career. Happily, it all came together. In , we came to the Newark campus. I became a research associate in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics.

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Harvey Ozer was department chair. He was a major influence in our lives. After working there for five years, I expressed an interest in academic administration and he mentored me every step of the way.

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  8. It was a whole other world, and I liked it. I decided that I would like to be a dean one day. I discussed it with Harvey and decided to pursue my PhD. Harvey was my PhD mentor. That was a little more than 10 years ago. Sadly, Harvey passed away recently. I will be forever grateful to him and will miss him dearly. My job was to bring faculty together, to build infrastructure for research and research training programs, and to help get the research center up and running.

    It was a phenomenal experience. I wanted to be more involved in education. She understands that students are not just researchers; they have lives. It is patient- and family- centered, has a team approach, and does a lot of interprofessional education. I believe we can play a big role in building a new health care model. I also want to help the faculty be as good as they can be. Sometimes it can feel as though administrators hold faculty back. I do not want to be that kind of administrator. I want to help faculty network within the school and with faculty from other schools.

    I want to be the liaison between this school and the central administration. I want to put systems in place to help all faculty members reach their potential and all students to excel and feel supported. I love jazz, classical, big band, rock, all kinds of music. I love to paint. I own a violin and want to learn to play it.

    I grow veggies and love to cook. Most of all, I like hanging out and chatting with my teenage kids, ages 14 and Our oldest child is grown up and married and lives outside Seattle.

    Teens have a fresh perspective—they keep you honest. I love to run, especially with my family. We just did a half marathon together. There is rarely a quiet moment in my life, but I would not have it any other way. When I was involved in lab research, I absolutely loved it. I want GSBS students to know that they should never feel that way.

    Funding is tight for research, but I encourage students with a passion for it to pursue it. But bench research and the pursuit of grant funding are not for everybody. People get a PhD for many reasons. For me, the PhD is the most valuable thing I have ever done. You learn critical thinking. It prepares you to write policy, work on patents, write grants, and be an academic administrator. The PhD prepares you for anything. Two brothers, both highly esteemed NJMS faculty members and alumni, credit their deep brotherly connection with bolstering them through years of rigorous training and challenges on their way to becoming highly respected physicians in their adopted country.

    Jean Daniel Eloy, MD, a graduate of His warm smile and self-effacing manner are not exactly what you might expect from an anesthesiologist who spends long hours in the operating room. When he came to this country from Haiti in , Jean Daniel was 24 years old. The children all went to private schools in Haiti and Jean Daniel says they were well cared for by their grandmother in Croix-des-Bouquets, just north of Port-au-Prince. Unfortunately, financial realities dictated a far longer separation for the Eloy family than what they had planned.

    It was not until that the three youngest children were reunited with their parents; and the two oldest were not able to join their siblings in the U. He spoke French and Creole, but little English, when he came to this country and entered Bloomfield College to begin his undergraduate studies in the basic sciences. Obviously he excelled since he was hand-picked to become a teaching assistant in chemistry, physics, and math after just one year at the school.

    A summer spent at NJMS between his junior and senior years convinced Jean Daniel that doctoring would be his profession of choice. And although he was accepted at several, there was a magnetic pull to the Newark-based medical school. Not only would he be following in the footsteps of his only and well-respected brother, but he had established a strong connection with Lonnie Wright, then-director of admissions, and Maria Soto-Greene, MD, vice dean of NJMS and a noted advocate for recruiting minority students into medical school and mentoring them along this difficult path.

    Family ties are important to Jean Daniel. Soto-Greene made a promise to mentor me, which meant a great deal. Jean Daniel thought he was headed into a career in surgery just like his brother , but after one year of residency at NJMS, he decided to switch. After a two-year stint to , Jean Daniel decided to do a fellowship at Pittsburgh University in acute pain management in order to launch that specialty at NJMS and University Hospital, its principal teaching hospital.

    Although he initially managed the service solo, it now includes four other physicians. But teaching has always factored in the life of Jean Daniel. When he returned to Newark, he was named assistant program director for the residency program in anesthesiology, which was quite an honor; and he took over the program as director in Under his watch, the residency program has grown. In , there were 27 residents; in , 33 residents; and next year the program will accept a total of Although 60 percent of his time is devoted to patient care, the other 40 percent is all about teaching.

    My job is to figure out what the residents need and to set them up to succeed. People here have invested greatly in my success. I would never have gotten that by moving away. But each year, he carves out about 10 days to volunteer his services abroad with a surgical team traveling to Haiti. Volunteering is very important to him. We teach locals different ways to do the surgeries, how to better use the equipment they have, and how to better organize their equipment.

    We also teach our residents that they can do a lot with minimal equipment. All five siblings are standouts in their chosen careers; four are involved in health care professions and one in teaching. And both daughters of esteemed female faculty members at NJMS will soon take their places in traditionally male-dominated specialties.

    Sylvia Christakos, PhD, professor of microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology, joined the faculty in , became a full professor in , and has attracted 35 years of uninterrupted NIH funding for her lab, among the top worldwide for Vitamin D research. When she was awarded a doctorate in endocrinology from the State University of New York at Buffalo in , there were few women in the field. That was never a problem for her. In addition, her warmth and love of teaching have made her a favorite with students, who have showered her with 13 Golden Apple awards for excellence.

    Maintain your ideals. Do it your way. Only Athena Tina , who loves music, plays several instruments, exceled in sports, and spent a semester in Greece, chose medicine after much soul-searching. However, three years after gradu-. She recently began a residency at the University of Pennsylvania, where she will specialize in urology including urological surgery , a field where only 8 percent of practitioners are women. But like her mother, grandmother, and great grandmother, she looks forward to breaking new ground.

    From the University of Jabalpur in India, where she earned. She joined the NJMS faculty 16 years ago. Actually, her goals changed midstream. In , the results of her clinical trial upended current practice, showing that when kids ages 4 to 12 are given Game Boys 30 minutes before surgery, their stress levels take a dive. It may have been the lively dinner-table conversations about medicine that inspired Priya to follow in the footsteps of her mother, surgeon-father, and brother, currently a resident in neurosurgery. In the summer before her junior year at Duke, she was awarded a Gates Foundation grant for a project she had designed on preventable blindness.

    She worked in rural villages in India, teaching young children how to prevent loss of sight caused by Vitamin A deficiency. The local hospital carried on her efforts. Her mother worried about Priya working alone in such remote locations, but for the college student it was a turning point. She had found her calling. Like her mother, grandmother, and great-grandmother before her, she looks forward to breaking new ground.

    Currently in a one-year internship in internal medicine at George Washington University, she will begin an ophthalmology residency at NYU next September. I know my career will excite me in the same way. The majority will need psychological, and sometimes pharmacological, support.

    Levounis often prescribes six months to one year of cognitive behavioral therapy for mild-to-moderate behavioral addiction, along with participation in a step program, such as Overeaters Anonymous, and nutritional consults. She is one of several students whose short stints as actors on the American Psychiatric Association website will likely impact their approach to treating patients with behavioral addictions for years to come.

    A Surgical Trifecta Three highly skilled surgeons use teamwork to put broken bodies back together again. What is different is that all three are involved in the care of every single patient who comes through the doors. Each doctor has his or her own patient list. Every day they discuss recent cases, including the ones they completed. Even when outcomes are favorable, they still challenge one another.

    His fellowship was with the faculty at the University of Washington orthopedics department at the Harborview Medical Center in Seattle. Sirkin explains that the most common model of care for orthopedic trauma surgeons is to have each member of a group manage one list of patients. Another is to have each doctor manage the patients who come in during his or her hour shift, and a third model is to have each member of the group take care of one specific part of the body.

    They also thrive in the academic environment at NJMS. Because of the emphasis on problem solving, thought, and teaching, the priority is to have the best possible outcome, no matter how difficult that may be. What they do and how they do it works. There, they said, she would get the expert care she was going to need. Perlman, who is in her 70s, says she had a broken femur and tibia on her right leg, a severely broken left ankle that required two surgeries, and a left knee injury that almost reached the bone, a fractured left shoulder, and displaced toes, not to mention a multitude of cuts and bruises.

    It was Michael Sirkin, MD. He told her that he and his team had been taking care of her and would continue to do so. And they did. Through it all, she says, Sirkin kept her laughing and encouraged her, telling her she was a fighter and could come back from this. Today she only needs a cane. Sirkin did? But it was more than his skill that made me whole again. That is Dr. And the three are continually being invited to teach and speak to other physicians all over the world.

    The most rewarding part of their job, however, is helping patients become functional again. We are the team that gets them to walk again, gets them back to work, and returns them to their lives. Our patients are so appreciative. From inventive researchers who have revolutionized how diseases like tuberculosis TB are diagnosed and managed worldwide to enterprising clinicians who lead challenging medical missions to far-flung regions of the planet, faculty members have shown remarkable resolve in combating diseases, easing suffering, and saving lives.

    The formidable task of curing the world takes more than just an overwhelming drive to help others. It requires resources, reliable collaborators, and a network of skilled people who willingly make the sacrifices necessary to carry out this labor of love, says Ziad C. Many use weeks of their own vacation time and spend their own money to lend a hand in poor and underdeveloped countries.

    Yet, he adds, each program is run independently, which limits collaborations, information sharing, and opportunities for others to get involved. Easterling, The group first convened in December and immediately established subcommittees covering education, local and international service, research, and funding, and an institute of global health.

    The team then issued a report to the dean. A trauma surgeon, Sifri is no stranger to creating an entity from the ground up. Sifri grew up in war-torn Beirut, Lebanon, where his passion for being of service to disenfranchised individuals took root. Clarke, MD, was installed as a sub-chief as part of a special ceremony.

    The increased interest by medical students is not surprising when one takes into account the very thing that drives most people to pursue careers in medicine, says Amy Gore, MD, a surgical resident at NJMS. It goes along with the mindset they have entering medical school. As personally rewarding as the work is, Sifri says the missions are not just about providing sorely needed surgical and non-surgical services in places where health care professionals are in short supply. Medical missions to remote locations throughout the world are nothing new.

    At NJMS, where Sifri and colleagues are seeking to establish a global health lecture series, there are already ISHI, global surgery, and international medicine electives; an ISHI student organization; and a newly established global surgery fellowship program. When I come back and look at myself in the mirror, I want to say to myself that I did the right thing.

    From establishing contact with collaborators in remote locations, booking flights, and getting the necessary governmental approvals and visas to recruiting volunteers, keeping them apprised of which vaccines they need, and identifying which supplies to bring on the trip, Scholer will use this knowledge in a future that he hopes will include his own nonprofit organization.

    One such student is Harsh Shah, a second-year NJMS student who, in June, endured a seven-and-a-half-hour plane ride and eight-hour bus journey with three other NJMS students for a three-week immersive global health experience in Huancayo, Peru. During the trip, Shah explains, students went on rounds and interacted with Peruvian doctors and medical students in two different hospitals.

    The students also took part in community service initiatives. Shah believes global health should be a required part of the curriculum. He says the experience in Peru helped build his confidence and gave him insight into the challenges that many people face in. But over the last 15 to 20 years, adds Sinha, important lifesaving vaccines have entered the market, carrying a price. In addition to student participation in MiniMed International, NJMS faculty travel annually to Huancayo to consult with and provide lectures to the community as well as to residents and medical faculty of the Universidad Nacional del Centro del Peru and the Universidad Continental.

    The school is home to powerhouse research programs like the Public Health Research Institute Center, which strives to overcome infectious diseases worldwide, and the Global Tuberculosis Institute, which works to cure TB around the world. It also boasts the likes of David Alland, MD, whose revolutionary research led to a rapid diagnostic test for tuberculosis, and physician-scientist Anushua Sinha, MD, MPH, who looks at the value, costs, and health consequences of bringing new.

    As physicians, our training leads us to want to save lives and reduce human suffering. That fact was never more apparent than in , during the height of the Ebola outbreak. No matter what path these scientific stars took into the world of medical research, their motivation looks very personal. Years of hard work, countless hours of study and training, as well as strong support systems have put them at the top of their games. By Maryann Brinley. Siracusa, PhD, why he does experimental science. Go ahead. Lots of people ask, especially family members and friends back in Massachusetts where he grew up.

    No one in his circle is a scientist although his father is an engineer and his mother is a retired nurse. To answer, this assistant professor in the NJMS Department of Medicine describes the thrill of discovery and the importance of advancing therapeutic strategies. When they exhaust all the tools, the options become very limited. In science you realize that it takes discoveries to advance that toolbox.

    He has first-authored papers in Nature and Immunity and his own National Institutes of Health NIH funding but perhaps even more important is his passion for this science. One is the type 1 response, basically pro-inflammatory, anti-bacterial or anti-viral. But another module and we know so little about it, is the type 2, an immune response originally meant to fight parasitic infections that might be triggering off randomly when it sees benign, really non-dangerous things like pollen.

    Siracusa earned his PhD in at Johns Hopkins University and then did post-doctoral work at the University of Pennsylvania, all the while following his fascination for biology and immunology. He remembers his early intellectual encounters with type 2 immunity. How is it initiated? Why is it initiated? How is it regulated? For type 1 immunity, we had identified all these receptors and immune cell populations but in contrast, there was really nothing known about type 2.

    My studies have taken us into the really early events that your body initiates in both. His earlier work focused on understanding acute pulmonary inflammation in response to hookworm infection. Perhaps no experience was as motivating as a trip to Peru with his mother right after completing his PhD. Research Leaders and his mom wanted to fly down to meet them. This reinvigorated my reasons for going back to my research. Siracusa explains that what most students have learned about immunology is dogma. Old stuff.